Essay about Classical Management Theories
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Successful management requires an understanding of the fundamental concepts of effective management techniques and principles. In order to gain such insight, and manage effectively and efficiently, managers must develop an awareness of past management principles, models and theories. From the turn of the 20th Century, the need for a formal management theory was growing evident; organisations required a system to guide managers in an attempt to improve productivity and efficiency of workers. This urgency for a theory saw the development of six major management approaches, the focus of this essay will be on two of the classical management theories; the scientific management theory and the human relations movement. The contributions of both…show more content…
(Mohanty and Sethi, 1996) The underlying assumption of the Scientific Management Theory, according to Dwyer (2005) is that
Human nature is machine-like and thoroughly rational, motivated by simple, uncomplicated economical needs.
In 1924, a series of studies were conducted in an attempt to determine the effect that lighting had on the productivity of a worker. These studies were later known as the "Hawthorne Studies". The studies, which were fronted by Elton Mayo, provided new insights into individual and group behaviour, and found that social norms or group standards were the major determinants of workers behaviour. (Robbins et al., 2006). It is from the Hawthorne Studies that the Human Relations Movement stemmed, and this theory holds a philosophy that a manager's concern for workers will lead to their increased satisfaction and improved performance. (Dwyer, 2005) The names associated with this movement include; Dale Carnegie, Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor. The main characteristics of the Human Relations Movement included; a scientific approach to the analysis of human behaviour, concern for the well-being of workers, attention to interpersonal relationships, and a view of the worker as a significant variable. (Mohanty and Sethi, 1996) The Human Relations Movement contradicted many of the major suppositions of the Scientific Management Theory. Scientific Management focused on the use of exact
Contingency Theory Essay
“Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory claiming that there is no best way to organize a corporation, lead a company, or make decisions” (Pfeffer, 1997). There is no simple or one right way to run things. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, two men named Henri Fayrol and Frederick Taylor continued the study of contingency theory. Research in the 1970’s dealt with the organizational structures and leadership styles for different situations (Thompson, 2005). Contingency theory was started by Joan Woodward, whose company research found that different types of processes were linked to different structures and amounts of control. She said that certain organizational forms are appropriate for certain forms of work. Woodward was a pioneer for the theory. Woodward composed several studies using differential variables such as management levels of a company, industry compressions, and management styles in her measurement (Thompson, 2005).--. From those tests, she has identified that there are three influential aspects to contingency theory: environmental, organizational, and leadership. These factors are the key components that influence the success of a business.
There are three factors that affect contingency plans. The first of these key components is the environmental factor. The next factor is the organizational factor. The environment is bound to change and have an impact on how an organization is run. For example, when FedEx Express went through the September 11, 2001 situation, they boosted security throughout the hub and raised shipping prices to offset the security budget. The same can be said when the president created the new cabinet of Homeland Security to fight the 9/11 attacks. The United States needed a contingency plan to deal with terroristic threats to our nation both within our borders and beyond. Stability in an environment will define how long an organization will last.
Policies, rules, and procedures effects the decisions of an organization. FedEx Express is not allowed to make up its own rules. It has to follow the rules given be FAA. If a plane is not airworthy, it cannot fly. If it is over weight, the plane has to be unloaded to meet standards. It seems that smaller organizations are given more leeway to be less formal than larger ones. Thompson states smaller organizations only have to deal with local, state, and federal laws and regulations. Larger organizations have to deal with the following plus international and foreign affairs. As with Federal Express, the company needs to comply with the rules and regulations when shipping internationally. They have to obtain and abide by the rules in which the plan to do business with. If a country has a national holiday, FedEx needs to be aware of it. Customers need to know that there will be a delay due to this reason. This alone can hinder how an organization is run (Thompson, 2005). Seeing that a larger business consists of...
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